Welcome to the WILD DESIGN Academy.

The once almost forgotten, time-honored craft is now regaining its importance, which is why traditional craftsmanship is the top priority at WILD DESIGN!

Old hand tools

Due to our many years of experience and acquired technical knowledge in this field, you will find here some important tips and assistance for the correct handling of hand tools for wood, metal, stainless steel and structural engineering.

Chapter 1: Sawing metal with a hand hacksaw.

Single parts.

1. wing nut

Serves to tension or release the saw blade.

2. clamping stud

Here is the saw blade is fixed.

3. blade

Serves for chip removal from the metal piece.

4. stud

The saw blade is mounted here.

5. handle

This is where the hacksaw is held.

6. frame

This serves to stabilize the saw.

Hand hacksaw

The pitch.

When talking about blade pitch, we mean how many teeth are on a saw blade per inch or per 25.4 mm.


Coarse pitch teeth

A coarse pitch teeth means that there are only a few teeth per 25.4 mm on the saw blade.


Fine pitch teeth

In contrast, with the fine pitch teeth, there are significantly more teeth per 25.4 mm on the saw blade.


The difference?

When sawing soft materials, such as copper, or thick-walled materials, we use a coarse pitch teeth, as the distance from tooth to tooth is considerably greater and therefore there is more space for the produced chips.


When sawing hard materials, such as stainless steel or thin-walled materials, it is particularly important that a large number of teeth are in mesh, otherwise the teeth would wear out too quickly.

tooth pitch
saw blades

WILD DESIGN Tip: The teeth on the hacksaw point away from your body.

metal saw

The wedge angle.

Let's take a closer look at the individual tooth on the saw blade. If we divide the tooth to 90°, we get the following 3 angles:


The wedge angle β

Depending on the material, the size of the wedge angle is selected. If this angle is greater than 90°, this is referred to as a scraping effect. If it is less than 90°, a cutting effect is achieved.


An acute wedge angle is particularly well suited for soft materials, as it can penetrate the material more easily and would wear out with a hard material.


The rake angle γ

The rake angle is required so that the chips can be removed cleanly.


The clearance angle α

This is necessary so that there is less friction between the saw blade and workpiece.

wedge angle


If we look at the saw blade from below, we can see that the teeth on the saw blade are straight/crossed or waved.


The reason for this is simple. When you saw through the workpiece, a kerf is formed. If this kerf has the same width as the saw blade, the blade would jam due to thermal expansion.


Due to the straight or wavy arrangement of the teeth, the kerf is wider than the saw blade when sawing and this process is called free cutting.

set saw

Free cutting explained simply

WILD DESIGN Tip: Rocking with the hacksaw while sawing.

working with a hacksaw


Use work clothing.

Symbol Work clothing

Wear protective goggles.

Symbol Safety goggles

Chapter 2: Metal drilling

The twist drill.

The main cutting edges.

In order to make a hole, we need two main cutting edges on the metal drill or also called twist drill, which remove the chip and cut the hole into the workpiece.


The acute angle.

This angle is between the two main cutting edges and is usually 118° for drilling various steels.


The cut chisel edge.

This small cutting edge is necessary to provide the necessary force to make a hole in the workpiece.



main cutting edges
The acute angle of a twist drill
Cut chisel edge of a metal drill

WILD DESIGN Tip: During the drilling process it is necessary to lubricate and cool the drill and the borehole by using cooling lubricants (water + oil).

Calculate the speed of a metal drill.

In order to obtain an optimum result of a drilling, it is of decisive importance to set the correct speed on the machine in advance.


The speed (n) is calculated by multiplying the cutting velocity (Vc) by 1000, divided by the diameter of the twist drill (d) and multiplied by 3.14 (π).


Calculation example

n = ?

Vc = 20m/min (Steel)

d = 10mm


n = Vc x 1000 / d x π

n= 20 x 1000 / 10 x 3.14

n = 636 rpm (drill speed)


Calculate speed
diameter of a drill

WILD DESIGN Tip: Wide sleeves are a high risk of injury when drilling!


Use work clothing.

symbol workwear

Wear protective goggles.

symbol goggles